Notre Dame de Paris is one of the most representative cultural relics and world heritage sites in France. This fire not only plunged France into grief, but also made the people of the world feel sorry, and also sounded the alarm for the protection of ancient buildings.
We will not forget: On September 2, 2018, the National Museum of Brazil was in a fire. The 200-year-old Latin America‘s largest museum was caught in a sea of fire, and more than 20 million pieces of cultural relics were burned. In China, the country’s key cultural relics protection unit with more than 1,300 years of history – Shangri-La’s “Moonlight City”, two-thirds of the Duke’s sect was burned; investment of nearly 1 billion yuan, construction for 8 years, unfinished Asia’s tallest wooden tower ——The Jiulong Temple in Mianzhu City, Sichuan Province was turned into an ashes in a fire; there are the wind and rain bridges in Chongqing, the ancient villages in the southeast of Guizhou, and the ancient city in Hongjiang in Hunan... In recent years, they have suffered ruthless fires.
China has a long history, many ancient buildings, and most of them are brick and wood structures, and fire prevention is more important than everything else. However, the ancient buildings that have survived to this day are facing great protection pressures: insufficient protection awareness, limited repair techniques, and insufficient funds and manpower. Some ancient buildings were destroyed in the fire or lightning strikes, and even unknown.
As an essential electrical equipment for ancient construction, lighting needs to be laid and pulled, which brings potential safety hazards to ancient buildings. How to protect and prevent it becomes a serious problem facing the lighting of ancient buildings.
Because of the special nature of ancient construction materials and structures, low-voltage weak electricity supply and cold light source lighting should be used in the building. Generally, electric heating appliances and high-power electrical appliances should not be used. If it is really necessary to use, it is necessary to adopt safety protection measures, formulate and strictly implement the use management system, and the lamps should have good fire performance and stable operation. It is strictly forbidden to pull the electrical circuit in private. The indoor and outdoor electrical circuits should be protected by metal pipes. Regular inspection and inspection of electrical circuits and electrical appliances to ensure safe use.
Installation of lamps on ancient buildings should be achieved by means of non-destructive installation such as clamping, bracing and hug. Because in ancient buildings, the lamps can not be firmly anchored as in ordinary buildings, the lamps must not only have good non-destructive installation performance, but also the adjustment of the projection angle is best achieved by clips, supports, and hoops.
At the same time, the waterproofness of the light source lamps is also important. If the waterproof sealing of the light source lamp is not good, it will cause a safety hazard. Ground-mounted and buried luminaires should have a higher level of waterproofing than overhead luminaires.
The lighting of ancient buildings should be suitable for white light with good color rendering. It can truly display ancient buildings, and the simple treatment is more expressive than the bright colors. Moreover, the oil paintings and color paintings on the surface of beams, columns, arches and fronts of ancient buildings have higher requirements on the artificial light source environment. The ultraviolet and infrared light radiation should be minimized to avoid the excessive oxidative fading of the pigment surface. Infrared heat radiation affects the cracking of the surface of the oil painting.
Prevent lightning strikes
Since the lamps and distribution lines are good conductors, the accumulation of earth charges will occur during thunderstorms, which greatly increases the possibility of lightning strikes on the ancient buildings. Therefore, pay attention to the following problems:
1. Lighting facilities and their distribution lines should be separated from the ancient building body and kept at a certain distance;
2. When it is necessary to install on the ancient building body, it should set up perfect lightning protection according to the lightning protection requirements, including the Franklin system to prevent direct lightning damage and the overvoltage protection device to prevent electromagnetic induction hazard;
3. For the independent and tall ancient buildings (ge, tower), consideration should be given to adding protection measures against side lightning.
4. Do the grounding device of the lightning protection system to quickly introduce the lightning current into the earth as soon as possible to reduce the degree of damage. ?
Most of the ancient Chinese buildings are wooden structures, and the fire prevention problem is very prominent. In the event of a fire, the damage it causes is often incalculable and compensated.
1. In principle, the installation of lighting fixtures and distribution facilities on flammable materials should be avoided. Luminaires that are directly installed on the surface of flammable materials in accordance with the requirements of the specification shall be luminaires marked with a flame retardant mark. Power distribution facilities (including distribution boxes, junction boxes, wire supports, etc.) should be fitted with fireproof septa. ??
2, lighting fixtures and distribution facilities should have better sealing, to prevent the occurrence of short-circuit faults inside the EDM;
3. The design of the lighting distribution system should be reserved with sufficient margin. Try to avoid the overload of the distribution switch and the wires caused by the overload of the line. The lighting distribution branch should be subdivided and set up with complete protection so that the fault can be removed in time;
4. All lamps and distribution facilities should pass mandatory safety certification;
5. Set a reasonable grounding system to avoid the faulty operation of the power distribution system.
The ancient architecture is the unrepeatable cultural heritage left by our ancestors. The lighting of ancient buildings not only makes the ancient buildings have unique night charm, but also expresses profound cultural connotations. Therefore, the lighting people should pay attention to the careful construction. protection.